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Interesting facts:



  •  Norovirus also contributes to causes about 56,000 to 71,000 hospitalizations and 570 to 800 deaths annually.

  • Although known as the winter vomiting bug and certainly more active in winter, a Norovirus infection can be contracted all year round.

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  • Salmonella, which is rod-shaped, is usually found in the digestive tracts of livestock and can commonly affect meat, poultry, eggs and unpasteurized dairy products.

  • Water supplies and soil can also be contaminated, through sewage or manure, affecting shellfish and produce such as fruit and vegetables.

  • Eating contaminated food is not the only way of contracting a Salmonella infection as cases have been traced back to reptiles such as tortoises and terrapins.

  • Common symptoms of Salmonella include diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting and fever which can last up to a week and usually start around 12-72 hours after ingesting the bacteria.

  • Patients may still be contagious up to 48 hours after symptoms have stopped and are advised to avoid returning to work, school or visiting hospitals until they are fully recovered.

  •  Medical treatment is not always necessary in favour or keeping hydrated, resting well and reintroducing plain food once your stomach has settled.

  • Severe cases of Salmonella may require a course of antibiotics, however anti-biotic resistant strains of Salmonella have emerged in recent years.

  • Practicing good hand hygiene is the best way of avoiding a Salmonella infection.  Hands should be thoroughly washed with soap and water after going to the toilet, before and after handling food, before eating and after gardening.

  • Washing fruit and vegetables thoroughly before consuming, storing raw and cooked foods separate and ensuring food is cooked thoroughly can also help to reduce the risk of contracting a Salmonella infection.

  • Food should be cooked until it is piping hot in the centre, particularly poultry, and surfaces and utensils used preparing food should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected to avoid any bacterial contamination.


Clostridium perfringens

  • Clostridium perfringens, one of the fastest-growing bacteria, has an optimum generation time of about 10 minutes; Escherichia coli can double every 20 minutes; and the slow-growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a generation time in the range of 12 to 16 hours.


  • Bacteria need water, warmth, and food to grow well. Growth can be very rapid; under ideal conditions one bacterium may multiply to 70,000 million bacteria in about twelve hours.


Staphylococcus aureus (Staph)

  • How long does Staphylococcus aureus survive? Staph/MRSA lives on the skin and survives on objects for 24 hours or more. The cleanest person can get a Staph infection. Staph can rub off the skin of an infected person onto the skin of another person during prolonged (skin to skin) contact between them.

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